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History of Pilates

Pilates Origins

“You can say what Pilates is in these words:  stretch with strength and control.  The control part is the most important because it makes you use your mind.”  Romana Kryzanowska, Pilates elder

What’s all of the fuss about?

What’s all the fuss about? After decades as the workout of the elite, Pilates has entered the fitness mainstream about a decade ago and has been going strong ever since. What’s the fascinating story behind how Pilates started? Here’s a brief look at its history.


How it all began

Joseph Hubertus Pilates was born in Monchengladbach Germany in 1883. As a child, Joe had asthma and other ailments. He turned to exercise and athletics to battle these ailments and was always studying various exercise regimens to expand his knowledge base. He became enamored by the classical Greek ideal of a man balanced in body, mind, and spirit, and he began to develop his own exercise system based on this concept.

Growing into adulthood, Joe was no longer the sickly child he had once been as he became an avid skier, diver, gymnast, and boxer.

In 1912 Joe went to England, where he worked as a self-defense instructor for detectives at Scotland Yard. At the outbreak of World War I, Joe was interned as an “enemy alien” with other German nationals. During his internment, Joe refined his ideas and trained other internees in his system of exercise. He rigged springs to hospital beds, enabling bedridden patients to exercise against resistance, an innovation that led to his later equipment designs. An influenza epidemic struck England in 1918, killing thousands of people, but not a single one of Joe’s trainees died. This, he claimed, testified to the effectiveness of his system.

After his release, Joe returned to Germany. His exercise method gained favor in the dance community, primarily through Rudolf von Laban, who created the form of dance notation most widely used today. Hanya Holm adopted many of Joe’s exercises for her modern dance curriculum, and they are still part of the “Holm Technique.” When German officials asked Joe to teach his fitness system to the army, he decided to leave Germany for good.



Pilates comes to the U.S.

In 1926, Joe emigrated to the United States. During the voyage he met Clara Zeuner, whom he later married (many people don’t know that Clara was Joe’s third wife). Joe and Clara opened a fitness studio in New York, sharing an address with the New York City Ballet.

By the early 1960s, Joe and Clara could count among their clients many New York dancers. George Balanchine studied “at Joe’s,” as he called it, and also invited Pilates to instruct his young ballerinas at the New York City Ballet.

Pilates was becoming popular outside of New York as well. As the New York Herald Tribune noted in 1964: “in dance classes around the United States, hundreds of young students limber up daily with an exercise they know as ‘a pilates’, without knowing that the word has a capital P, and a living, right-breathing namesake.”

Joe continued to train clients at his studio until his death in 1967, at the age of 87. When he passed away, he left no will and had designated no line of succession for the Pilates work to carry on.

Nevertheless, his work would remain and eventually flourish in large part due to his protégés, referred to as the “elders.”


Where the stars go, the media follows. In the late 1980s, the media began to cover Pilates extensively. The public took note, and the Pilates business boomed. No longer the workout of the elite, Pilates has entered the fitness mainstream. It is not only featured in fitness facilities all over the world, but has become a crucial training adjunct to elite athletes all over the world including the NFL, NBA, MLB, MLS, NHL and many Olympic athletes. Today, over 10 million Americans practice Pilates, and the numbers continue to grow.

“I’m fifty years ahead of my time,” Joe once claimed.

He was right.